Thus, one of the characteristic features of the Renaissance is also its humanism.
He pointed to the futility of the detached scholastic method, promoted the importance of experience and experiment in the development of scientific knowledge. In his opinion, philosophy should be based on experience, specific sciences, a special place among which he gave to physics and mathematics.
It is also worth noting that scientific activity at this time is beginning to be distinguished from philosophy and religion, even in the education system are already separated from the natural sciences and humanities. However, this division is not yet final. It is worth mentioning such a phenomenon in the Middle Ages as the Inquisition, which actually tried to subdue the scientific and natural research of scientists to their interests.
For example, Galileo was condemned and executed for questioning the religious worldview and offering a view that the earth is spherical in shape and revolves around its axis.
15-16 st. in the history of science is called the Renaissance, the Renaissance. This term is used to describe the period of revival of ancient culture under the influence of significant changes in the socio-economic and spiritual life of Western Europe. One of the sources of Renaissance philosophy were medieval heresies, which were a kind of ideology opposed to feudal movements. Heresies undermined medieval church dogma, official religious ideology, and cleared the way for anti-church ideas of Renaissance thinkers. A clear example of this is the views of J. Hus and his associates.
The formation of the philosophy of the Renaissance, of course, also had a significant impact on advanced trends in medieval philosophy in general. This refers to nominalism, rationalist and empirical tendencies in the theory of medieval philosophy.
Along with these preconditions, the development of a kind of Renaissance philosophy was also facilitated by the great discoveries (especially the heliocentrism of Copernicus) and the inventions that were made at that time. The need to develop new industries has led to a qualitatively new advance in science – astronomy, mechanics, geography and other sciences.
The development of production, new social relations required a new, enterprising person who would feel not a share, a representative of a certain social status or corporation, but an independent person who represents himself.
A new self-consciousness of a person is formed, his active life position, a feeling of personal strength and talent appears. The ideal of the man of the Renaissance is his versatile activities. There is a type of cultural, humanistic individualism, which focuses not on practical economic activity (bourgeois individualism), but on culture. The priority in the hierarchy of spiritual values is not origin or wealth, but personal dignity and nobility.
The goal of life now is not the salvation of the soul, but creativity, knowledge, service to people, society, not God. Thus, one of the characteristic features of the Renaissance is also its humanism.
Renaissance philosophy also revises the medieval attitude to nature. She denies the interpretation of the latter as the beginning of non-independence. But at the same time it does not mean a return to the cosmocentrism of ancient thinking, nature is treated pantheistically (Greek “pantheism” means “piety”). God merges with nature, as if dissolved in it. as a result, nature itself is worshiped. The real worldview revolution of the Renaissance was also manifested in the views on the universe of Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) and Giordano Bruno (1548-1600).
Heliocentric theory, created and substantiated by Copernicus, completely denied the medieval theological ideas about the universe and man’s place in it. It opened fundamentally new ways for the development of natural sciences, including physics and astronomy.
D. Bruno, developing a heliocentric theory, put forward the idea of the infinity of the universe and the multiplicity of worlds in it, stood on the positions of pantheism, “dissolving” God in all nature. He believed that nature is God in things. J. Bruno formed the basic principle of natural science, which was experiencing a period of formation: The universe is one, infinite; it is not generated or destroyed, it cannot decrease or increase.
In general, the universe is motionless, but in its space move only the bodies that are part of the universe. Despite the elements of recognizing the possibility of knowledge through faith, a certain skepticism, the “duality of truth”, etc., the philosophers of the Renaissance mainly stood on the positions of the materialist theory of knowledge. Their point of view on cognition was reduced to the following provisions. First, the possibility of learning about the world as it is; secondly, the action of the external world as a source of knowledge on the senses that perceive and process this action; third, the denial of any intangible substance that governs the process of human cognition; fourth, the recognition and affirmation of the power of reason and logical activity, without which true knowledge cannot be attained.
The next step in the development of scientific knowledge is the Philosophy of the New Age, which has the historical preconditions for its formation as the establishment of the bourgeois mode of production in Western Europe, the scientific revolution of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and the formation of experimental natural science. It affirmed its basic principles in the struggle against feudal ideology, medieval scholasticism, religion and the church, continuing the spiritual heritage of the Renaissance.
The most significant feature of modern philosophy was the focus on natural science, close connection with the problems of methodology of scientific knowledge, in which she saw the main means of moral and social renewal of mankind, the assertion of human dignity, freedom and happiness. The philosophy of the New Age sees its main task in the development and substantiation of methods of scientific cognition, concentrating its main issues around the methodology of scientific cognition and epistemology. Both empiricism and rationalism considered mathematics to be the ideal of knowledge, and universality, necessity, and materiality were recognized as the main characteristic features of true knowledge.
The practical significance of science is that it is an instrument of progress. However, the experiment is recognized only as a prerequisite for cognition, which must be subject to rational-mathematical thinking. The consequence of this development of scientific knowledge is that it already functions separately from religion, although it borrows some of its elements as the basis of methodological research.
A significant and important stage in the development of world philosophy and science is German classical philosophy, which covers a tense, very bright in its results, important for the impact on the spiritual history of mankind period of spiritual and intellectual development. Bona is represented by a set of philosophical concepts of Germany for almost a hundred years, in particular, such original thinkers as Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814), Friedrich Wilhelm Schelling (1775-1854), Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel -1831), Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach (1804-1872). All representatives of German classical philosophy are united by an understanding of the role of philosophy in human history and in the development of world culture.
They believed that philosophy is designed to critically self-knowledge of human life, made the subject of a special philosophical study of human history and human essence. From their point of view, philosophy, feeding on the sciences, focusing on the sciences, must build itself as a science of humanistic orientation. German classics have developed certain general principles of approach to the problem of historical development, proposing to study it by scientific and theoretical means and highlighting some of its general patterns.
Considering human problems, German classical philosophy focuses on the principle of freedom and other humanistic values. Given these main features of German classical philosophy, we can also identify the main problems, the study of which is the focus of this period of world philosophy: the problem of scientific philosophy, ontology, epistemology, philosophical anthropology, philosophy of history, philosophy of law, philosophy of religion, philosophy of religion etc.
German classical philosophy laid the foundations on which almost all subsequent scientific research is based. Further development of science is characterized by a materialist view of the world and man. Religion is pushed to the background by science. We can even say that religion as a phenomenon, to adapt its teachings to the requirements of the time begins to reconcile their own view of the world with the scientific view.
For example, some clergymen, accepting the evidence of scientists on the development of the earth and life on it, say that from the standpoint of religion this is possible because it can be interpreted as the days of the earth as an era.
Indeed, religion and science can, under certain circumstances, appear as factors in mutual evolution. The first scientific research was due to the desire of religion to strengthen its position in the growing development of intellectual characteristics of the individual and society as a whole. Even when a person begins to look for certain rationalist explanations of the universe, religion still plays the role of a https://123helpme.me/a-tree-grows-in-brooklyn/ “bridgehead” of the fulcrum from which all research begins.
Due to its specificity, religion always dogmatizes its ideological heritage and gives them the characteristics of “eternal truths”. However, when science emerges as an alternative to religion, bringing some innovations to the system of scientific and mythological knowledge, religion begins to borrow them (but only if it does not harm religious teaching, but rather strengthens its position). Borrowed by religion in its era, imperfect truths over time organically intertwined with the essence of religious ideas, ideas, concepts, beliefs.
Over time, religion and science become so different that they begin to be considered different planes of human worldview. But today a lot is said about the interaction of religion and science. For example, Pope Paul 6, addressing members of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, said: “It is in the interests of the Catholic Church, and to some extent, the Church’s relationship with the modern world of science to be closer.
Let’s even say that they are guided by the belief that our religion not only does not interfere with the study of nature, but can even go beyond its own field of activity to help scientific research, to glorify its results …